performance measurements

Each table row shows performance measurements for this C gcc program with a particular command-line input value N.

 N  CPU secs Elapsed secs Memory KB Code B ≈ CPU Load
250,0000.190.08?2040  75% 88% 56% 25%
2,500,0001.760.7120,4322040  59% 87% 39% 66%
25,000,00015.945.87130,3882040  58% 31% 100% 85%

Read the ↓ make, command line, and program output logs to see how this program was run.

Read k-nucleotide benchmark to see what this program should do.


gcc version 4.9.2 (Ubuntu 4.9.2-10ubuntu13)

 k-nucleotide C gcc #8 program source code

// The Computer Language Benchmarks Game
// Contributed by Jeremy Zerfas

// This controls the initial size used for the hash tables. This needs to be a
// power of two because a mask is also calculated from this by using
// This controls the maximum length for each set of nucleotide sequence
// frequencies and each nucleotide sequence count output by this program.

#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

// intptr_t should be the native integer type on most sane systems.
typedef intptr_t intnative_t;

//*** Start of hash table implementation ***

// In order to prevent too many collisions from occurring the hash table is
// grown when it is filled to a certain percentage. This value sets the
// percentage that controls when growing should occur. This value must be set as
// a fraction between 0 and 1 but sane values are generally around 3/4. Setting
// the value too low causes the hash table to be made larger than it needs to be
// which reduces the effectiveness of caches and setting it too high will cause
// a large amount of collisions.

typedef struct element{
   #define      EMPTY_VALUE_KEY -1
   int64_t      key;    // If key is negative, then this element is empty,
                  // otherwise key and value contain the unmodified key
                  // and value.
   int32_t      value;
} element;

typedef struct hash_table{
   intnative_t   size;         // The current capacity of the hash table. Never
                        // will actually be reached since the hash table
                        // will be grown first when it reaches
                        // element_Limit.
   int64_t      key_Mask;      // ANDed with keys to make sure that hash table
                        // indexes do not exceed the size of the hash
                        // table.
   intnative_t   element_Limit;   // Controls the maximum amount of elements that
                        // are allowed in the hash table before it will
                        // be grown.
   intnative_t   element_Count;   // The current amount of elements in the hash
                        // table.
   element   *   elements;
} hash_table;

// Create a hash table with space allocated for requested_Size elements.
// requested_Size must be a power of two since the mask for keys is defined as
// requested_Size-1.
static hash_table * create_Hash_Table(intnative_t requested_Size){
   hash_table * created_Hash_Table=malloc(sizeof(hash_table));

   // Initialize the properties for the created_Hash_Table.

   // Initialize all elements in the created_Hash_Table to have initial keys
   // set to EMPTY_VALUE_KEY and values set to 0.
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<requested_Size; i++)
      created_Hash_Table->elements[i]=(element){EMPTY_VALUE_KEY, 0};

   return created_Hash_Table;

// Destroy hash table pointed to by hash_Table_To_Destroy and all of its
// elements.
static void destroy_Hash_Table(hash_table * hash_Table_To_Destroy){

// Hash function used to hash keys.
#define hash_Key(key) (key ^ key>>7)

// Grow hash_Table_To_Grow by quadrupling it in size. A new elements array is
// created, the existing elements are inserted into the new elements array, the
// old elements array is deleted, and the properties for hash_Table_To_Grow are
// updated. 
static void grow_Hash_Table(hash_table * const hash_Table_To_Grow){
   const intnative_t old_Hash_Table_Size=hash_Table_To_Grow->size;
   const intnative_t new_Hash_Table_Size=old_Hash_Table_Size*4;

   // Keep a reference to old_Hash_Table_Elements and allocate space for
   // new_Hash_Table_Elements.
   element * const old_Hash_Table_Elements=hash_Table_To_Grow->elements;
   element * const new_Hash_Table_Elements=malloc(new_Hash_Table_Size*

   // Update the properties for the hash_Table_To_Grow.

   // Initialize all elements in new_Hash_Table_Elements to have initial keys
   // set to EMPTY_VALUE_KEY and values set to 0.
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<new_Hash_Table_Size; i++)
      new_Hash_Table_Elements[i]=(element){EMPTY_VALUE_KEY, 0};

   // Copy all old_Hash_Table_Elements to new_Hash_Table_Elements. This code is
   // simpler and faster than using the find_Or_Add_Element_For_Key() function
   // since we don't need to worry about updating element_Count and checking to
   // see if we have reached element_Limit.
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<old_Hash_Table_Size; i++){
         int64_t elements_Index=hash_Key(old_Hash_Table_Elements[i].key) &

         // Find the first free spot in new_Hash_Table_Elements and copy the
         // old element to it.


// See if key is already in hash_Table and if so then return the element for it,
// otherwise add the key to hash_table (and grow it if necessary) and return the
// element for it.
static inline element * find_Or_Add_Element_For_Key(
  hash_table * const hash_Table, const int64_t key){
   int64_t elements_Index=hash_Key(key) & hash_Table->key_Mask;

   // Search hash_Table for key.
   element * const elements=hash_Table->elements;
      // If we reach a key with a negative value then that means that key is
      // not in hash_Table so we will go ahead and add it.
         // If we're at the hash table's load limit then grow the hash table
         // and call this function a second time to add and return an item.
            return find_Or_Add_Element_For_Key(hash_Table, key);

         // Set the key for this element to key, increment element_Count, and
         // break out of the loop so that this element will be returned.

      // Still haven't found key or a free spot so continue to the next index.
   return &(elements[elements_Index]);
//***  End of hash table implementation  ***

// Function to use when sorting elements with qsort() later. Elements with
// larger values will come first and in cases of identical values then elements
// with smaller keys will come first.
static int element_Compare(const void * uncasted_Left_Element,
  const void * uncasted_Right_Element){
   const element * left_Element=uncasted_Left_Element,
     * right_Element=uncasted_Right_Element;

   // Sort based on element values.
   if(left_Element->value < right_Element->value) return 1;
   if(left_Element->value > right_Element->value) return -1;

   // If we got here then both items have the same value so then sort based on
   // key.
   if(left_Element->key > right_Element->key)
      return 1;
      return -1;

// Macro to convert a nucleotide character to a code. Note that upper and lower
// case ASCII letters only differ in the fifth bit from the right and we only
// need the three least significant bits to differentiate the letters 'A', 'C',
// 'G', and 'T'. Spaces in this array/string will never be used as long as
// characters other than 'A', 'C', 'G', and 'T' aren't used.
#define code_For_Nucleotide(nucleotide) (" \0 \1\3  \2"[nucleotide & 0x7])

// And one more macro to convert the codes back to nucleotide characters.
#define nucleotide_For_Code(code) ("ACGT"[code & 0x3])

// Generate frequences for all nucleotide sequences in sequences that are of
// length sequence_Length and then save it to output.
static void generate_Frequencies_For_Sequences(char * sequences,
  intnative_t sequences_Length, intnative_t sequence_Length, char * output){
   hash_table * hash_Table=create_Hash_Table(INITIAL_HASH_TABLE_SIZE);

   // Add all the sequences of sequence_Length to hash_Table.
   int64_t code=0;
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<sequences_Length; i++){
      const int64_t mask=((int64_t)1<<2*sequence_Length)-1;
      code=(code<<2 & mask) | sequences[i];
         find_Or_Add_Element_For_Key(hash_Table, code)->value++;

   // Create an array of elements from hash_Table.
   intnative_t elements_Array_Size=hash_Table->element_Count;
   element * elements_Array=malloc(elements_Array_Size*sizeof(element));
   for(intnative_t i=0, j=0; i<hash_Table->size; i++){

   // Sort elements_Array.
   qsort(elements_Array, elements_Array_Size, sizeof(element),

   // Calculate the total count of all elements.
   intnative_t total_Count=0;
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<elements_Array_Size; i++)

   // Print the frequencies for each element.
   for(intnative_t output_Position=0, i=0; i<elements_Array_Size; i++){
      // Decode key back into a nucleotide sequence.
      char nucleotide_Sequence[sequence_Length+1];
      for(intnative_t j=sequence_Length-1; j>-1; j--){

      // Output the frequency for nucleotide_Sequence to output.
        MAXIMUM_OUTPUT_LENGTH-output_Position, "%s %.3f\n",
        nucleotide_Sequence, 100.0f*elements_Array[i].value/total_Count);


// Generate a count for the number of time nucleotide_Sequence appears in
// sequences and then save it to output.
static void generate_Count_For_Sequence(char * sequences,
  const intnative_t sequences_Length, const char * nucleotide_Sequence,
  char * output){
   const intnative_t nucleotide_Sequence_Length=strlen(nucleotide_Sequence);

   hash_table * hash_Table=create_Hash_Table(INITIAL_HASH_TABLE_SIZE);

   // Add all the sequences of nucleotide_Sequence_Length to hash_Table.
   int64_t key=0;
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<sequences_Length; i++){
      const int64_t mask=((int64_t)1<<2*nucleotide_Sequence_Length)-1;
      key=(key<<2 & mask) | sequences[i];
         find_Or_Add_Element_For_Key(hash_Table, key)->value++;

   // Generate key for the sequence.
   for(intnative_t i=0; i<nucleotide_Sequence_Length; i++)
      key=(key<<2) | code_For_Nucleotide(nucleotide_Sequence[i]);

   // Output the count for nucleotide_Sequence to output.
   intnative_t count=find_Or_Add_Element_For_Key(hash_Table, key)->value;
   snprintf(output, MAXIMUM_OUTPUT_LENGTH, "%jd\t%s", (intmax_t)count,


int main(){
   char buffer[4096];

   // Find the start of the third nucleotide sequence.
   while(fgets(buffer, sizeof(buffer), stdin) && memcmp(">THREE", buffer,

   // Start with 1 MB of storage for reading in the nucleotide sequence and
   // grow exponentially.
   intnative_t nucleotide_Sequence_Capacity=1048576;
   intnative_t nucleotide_Sequence_Size=0;
   char * nucleotide_Sequence=malloc(nucleotide_Sequence_Capacity);

   // Start reading and encoding the third nucleotide sequence.
   while(fgets(buffer, sizeof(buffer), stdin) && buffer[0]!='>'){
      for(intnative_t i=0; buffer[i]!='\0'; i++){

      // Make sure we still have enough memory allocated for any potential
      // nucleotides in the next line.
      if(nucleotide_Sequence_Capacity-nucleotide_Sequence_Size <

   // Free up any leftover memory.
   nucleotide_Sequence=realloc(nucleotide_Sequence, nucleotide_Sequence_Size);

   char output_Buffer[7][MAXIMUM_OUTPUT_LENGTH];

   // Do the following functions in parallel.
   #pragma omp parallel sections
      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Frequencies_For_Sequences(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, 1, output_Buffer[0]); }
      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Frequencies_For_Sequences(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, 2, output_Buffer[1]); }

      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Count_For_Sequence(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, "GGT", output_Buffer[2]); }
      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Count_For_Sequence(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, "GGTA", output_Buffer[3]); }
      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Count_For_Sequence(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, "GGTATT", output_Buffer[4]); }
      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Count_For_Sequence(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, "GGTATTTTAATT", output_Buffer[5]); }
      #pragma omp section
      { generate_Count_For_Sequence(nucleotide_Sequence,
        nucleotide_Sequence_Size, "GGTATTTTAATTTATAGT", output_Buffer[6]); }

   for(intnative_t i=0; i<7; printf("%s\n", output_Buffer[i++]));


   return 0;

 make, command-line, and program output logs

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 17:18:29 GMT

/usr/bin/gcc -pipe -Wall -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -march=native -fopenmp -std=c99 -include Include/simple_hash3.h knucleotide.gcc-8.c -o knucleotide.gcc-8.gcc_run 
In file included from <command-line>:0:0:
./Include/simple_hash3.h:195:31: warning: ‘ht_node_create’ is static but used in inline function ‘ht_find_new’ which is not static
   return(ht->tbl[hash_code] = ht_node_create(key));
./Include/simple_hash3.h:191:24: warning: ‘ht_node_create’ is static but used in inline function ‘ht_find_new’ which is not static
   return (prev->next = ht_node_create(key));
./Include/simple_hash3.h:173:21: warning: ‘ht_hashcode’ is static but used in inline function ‘ht_find_new’ which is not static
     int hash_code = ht_hashcode(ht, key);
./Include/simple_hash3.h:156:21: warning: ‘ht_hashcode’ is static but used in inline function ‘ht_find’ which is not static
     int hash_code = ht_hashcode(ht, key);
rm knucleotide.gcc-8.c
0.35s to complete and log all make actions

./knucleotide.gcc-8.gcc_run 0 < knucleotide-input25000000.txt

A 30.295
T 30.151
C 19.800
G 19.754

AA 9.177
TA 9.132
AT 9.131
TT 9.091
CA 6.002
AC 6.001
AG 5.987
GA 5.984
CT 5.971
TC 5.971
GT 5.957
TG 5.956
CC 3.917
GC 3.911
CG 3.909
GG 3.902

1471758	GGT
446535	GGTA
47336	GGTATT

Revised BSD license

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